Cahiers d’Études du Religieux - Recherches interdisciplinaires
Domination par la religion, ou religion sous domination ? Le cas de l’Angleterre du milieu du XVIe à la fin du XVIIe. Essai d’interprétation
Summary: The most recent concepts coined by Danièle Hervieu-Léger for the sociology or religions provide a new understanding of the mutations in individual and collective religious experience in contemporary societies. This paper intends to test the heuristic value of such notions by the restructuring of religious identities and allegiances in England between the mid-sixteenth and the mid-seventeenth centuries.
Keywords: Religion - Early-modern history - Great Britain - Sociology - English Protestantism - Puritanism - Catholicism - Minorities - Gauchet - Hervieu-Léger
The eighteenth century : Protestant awakening and Catholic decline
Summary: At the beginning of the eighteenth century, Catholic missions were more dynamic than Protestant ones, and yet, by the end of the century, the situation was reversed. What are the reasons for such a change ? How can we explain it ? What are the factors favouring or preventing the development of the missions ?
Keywords: eighteenth centuty, Protestant and Catholic missions, comparative study, changes in missionary thinking
Missionary law in the colonies : a ‘patrimonial’ affair ?
Summary: Missionary law in the colonies, when seen in the context of the relationships between Church and State under the Third Republic, has many original features : it rarely entered the sphere of action of metropolitan lawyers (who simply applied the solutions adopted under the Concordat regime). Local lawyers were often left to deal with it, when anything happened at all. Beyond issues such as the control of worship (for example, the authorisations that were granted, or the buildings that were especially designated, to conduct worship), the question of the property rights of the mission returned time and again. Through lawsuits, transactions, settlements and conflicts, we witness how the colonial Domain and the ‘missions’ met before a judge who, most of the time, was embarrassed to adjudicate. Can we then conclude that the difficulties encountered in introducing the laws of 1901, 1904 and 1905 are tied to the repeated difficulties to introduce property law—which is just as problematic to define ? This is the hypothesis that we will present.
Keywords: Third Republic, French colonies, property law, mission law, separation of Church and State, judicial application.
The emergence of ‘missiology’ as a critical discipline when dealing with missions in the contemporary world.
Summary: ‘Missiology’, both as a taught discipline and a field of research, is a fairly recent development in the academic curriculum of French-speaking universities since it dates from the 1980s. How can we explain that this development occurred so late, whereas Protestant Germany instituted its first University Chair in missiology at the end of the nineteenth century? Following some hypotheses of the French Protestant missiologist Édouard Vaucher (1847-1920), this paper presents some factors that might explain why contemporary missionary practice preceded missiological theory. Oversea missions were born at the beginning of the nineteenth century, following the religious Awakening. Missionaries feared that the findings of missiology be criticical of their practices and believed they were successful without the help of missiology. Through case studies from the ‘École des Missions de la Société des Missions protestantes française’ (1822-1970), we will analyse the epistemological foundations of missiology as a contemporary discipline in theology.
Keywords: Nineteenth century, missionary practice, missiology, emergence of a theological discipline, Société des Missions
Sixteenth-century Moriscans : from the failure of evangelisation to generalised repression
Summary: Moriscans failed to integrate with the faithful subjects of the Catholic king for religious, but also for territorial, reasons. Against Hernando de Talavera, who advised patience and persuasion, the people of Castile were forced to convert or be expelled. In the kingdom of Aragon, popular hatred – best seen in the insurrection of the cities – forced the Moriscans to accept baptism, even though they were protected by the landlords. However, the Moriscans’ resistance against a forced cultural and religious assimilation endure, and in the XVIth century there was still tension between the Inquisition and the Moriscan communities that will finally be expelled from the territory.
Keywords: Moriscans, mudéjares, evangelisation, conversion, expulsion, cultural assimilation, Charles V, Philip II
Roger L’Estrange, the Restoration press and the French : translation and Anglican propaganda, 1678-1681
Summary: This article explores some French translations of works by the immensely prolific English journalist, pamphleteer and censor, Roger L’Estrange (1616-1704) together with a translation he made himself. First, the article analyses the French versions of his Narrative of the Plot (1678), translated as Histoire de la Conspiration d’Angleterre (1679), and The Dissenter’s Sayings (1681), rendered as Le Non-Conformiste anglois dans ses Ecris, dans ses Sentiments, & dans sa Pratique (1683). We will show how these two pieces of propaganda, originally meant to support the Stuart regime and the Anglican church against the English religious dissenters, were modified to suit a French readership, especially the French Huguenots exiled in London. Second, we will investigate L’Estrange’s own translation of an anonymous French work, Apologie pour les Protestans, published in 1681, and will focus on L’Estrange’s abreviations of the original that present a biased and erroneous image of French protestantism in England. In both cases, we will pay close attention to the way controversial literature was translated and the extent to which some translators were misguided as to the nature of both French and English protestantism.
Keywords: Roger L’Estrange, translation, propaganda, Anglican Church, protestantism, Huguenots, Stuarts, dissenters
The Ahbash. A contested Lebanese Sunnite movement in a globalised world.
Summary: The « Association of Islamic Philanthropic Projects » (AIPP) is condemned by some Muslims who contest the orthodoxy of its affiliation to the Sunnite movement. The Ahbahj first appeared during the Lebanon war, under the leadership of an Ethiopian Sheik established in the Middle-East, and penetrated the community first by force before being given some legitimacy by representatives of al-Azhar University. Despite the support of some political authorities, the AIPP failed to win massive popular support in Lebanon, even though its influence extended far beyond the Mediterranean where it came to clash with other proselytising movements, such as the ‘Brothers’.
Keywords: Islam, Sunnite, Lebanon, Al-Ahbash, AIPP, al Hirari, al Halabi, Moussaoui, Ibn Baz, Global University.
Women and spirituality : the cultural and spiritual mediation of the beatas in early-modern Spain
Summary: This article explores the role played by several exceptional women in Catholic spirituality in Castile, from the end of the XVth century to the 1530s. In a period of intense religious anxiety and cultural upheaval, Isabel de la Cruz and her lay and Fanciscan followers (most of them converted Jews) played a major role in the birth and development of the Illuminist movement, which kindled a ferocious repression orchestrated by the Inquisition againt the heretics. In order to eradicate everything that smacked of Erastianism and Lutheranism, it went far beyond measures against the Illuminists (alumbrados) alone. The joint efforts of members of the Inquisition and of theologians had major social consequences that thwarted women’s quest for an independent spirituality.
Keywords: Spain, Castile, end of the XVth century, beginning of the XVIth century, Illuminist movement, beatas, Inquisition.
Proselytism and the law : freedom under control
Summary: Because proselytism is protected and guaranteed by religious freedom, it seems to have no autonomy as a legal concept. However, in France it is treated as an independent legal question. Constructing proselytism as a specific legal area, through an examination of French jurisprudence (compared to that of the European Court of Justice), allows one to give the concept an autonomous framework and scope.
Keywords: religious liberty, proselytism (scope of the concept and legal framework), proselyte conduct, excess and pressure, proselytist sign, ostentatious religious signs.
Relationships between contemporary neo-shamanism and neo-druidism : a study in comparative anthropology/ethnology
Summary: This article uses field research on native American shamanism and analyses of certain neo-shamanist, ‘new age’ and neo-druidic writings. It takes into account medieval texts together with recent scholarship on Celtic culture. It shows that both New Age and neo-paganism use many ideas from animist and shamanist societies. Lakota Sioux writers adopted the holistic beliefs of magical and esoteric movements, with borrowings from the ‘spiritual knowledge of ancients Celts and their druids’. Modern-day shamans and druids adapt « foreign » notions to transmit them to future generations. They modernise ancestral beliefs in an original way, developing their ‘psycho-therapeutical’ aspects. Their spiritual activities testify to the vitality of the shamanic and pagan traditions in our modern world.
Keywords: Native-American shamanism, neo-shamanism, ‘Celtic shamanism’, neo-druidism, neo-paganism, spiritual quest, comparative anthropology, importance of traditions and mythical figures.
Le père ou le roi : Stratégies de traduction en Ésaïe IX, 6 et XXII, 21 (Septante)
Summary: The Septuagint (the former Greek translation of the Hebraic Bible) of Isaias refuses twice to a person the name « father » which the Hebrew text gave him; at the same time, it creates for these people royal features, or stresses them. It is possible that the translator wanted to avoid attributing to a human being the honorary term of « father », that he would so reserve for God.
Keywords: Textual rammar - Hellenistic Judaism - father - poetics - kingship - Septuagint - theology of the translation - translation of the Bible
Épopée biblique entre traduction poétique et commentaire exégétique
Summary: The adaptation in dactylic hexameters of the Christ’s life from the Gospel of Matthew is rich in teaching on the connections betwen this literary genre - the biblical epic - and the biblical text and the pagan literature. We see the birth of a Christian poetry which addresses a well-read readership, but in a historic context - under the emperor Constantin - in which is a wrong feeling of triumphant enjoyment from the Christians. It will be a question here of studying through two passages - the foreword and the episode of the storm - the shape and the sense which takes the work of rewriting of the Christian poet.
Enjeux et défis de la traduction des textes religieux : prolégomènes à une étude des choix identitaires en Transylvanie
Summary: This study sketchs the general lines of a project of a research which examines the dynamics of the relations between political power, religion and the identical stakes in the Rumanian of Transylvania since the end of the XVIIth century until now, through an investigation of the activity of translation and publication of religious texts. We approach from a theoretical point of view some of the challenges and the stakes in the translation of religious texts, to concentrate us on the question of the ideology in translation. The second part draws the historic marks wich will serve as starting point to understand the wider context in wich evolved the activity of translation in Transylvania, in particular the problem of the identical choice.
Keywords: Catholicism, identity, ideology, orthodoxy, religion, Rumanian, translation, Transylvania, uniatism
La mort du prince Henri (†1612) : éthique et rhétorique du deuil dans un cycle de sermons funèbres anglais
Summary: This article examines the thematic and rhetorical specificities of a cycle of funeral sermons preached in 1612 by Daniel Price on the occasion of the death of prince Henry, the eldest son of James I. It begins by describing the conventions of the English funeral sermon, which took shape in the second half of the sixteenth century, at a time when the clergy aimed at legitimizing the act of preaching over the dead in a Protestant context. It will be shown that at the beginning of the seventeenth century, the majority of printed funeral sermons conformed to a well-defined rhetorical pattern and pursued a two-fold pastoral aim: the commemoration of the dead and the edification of the living. Focusing on the grief of the audience, the sermons of Daniel Price significantly differ from this pattern, both rhetorically and thematically. The second part of the article will focus on the analysis of these idiosyncrasies, which will be shown to be symptomatic of a wider cultural change occurring in England at the beginning of the seventeenth century: the valuing of human grief in a devotional context.
L’athéisme au prisme des psaumes : étude comparée de quatre sermons réformés sur le psaume XIV au XVIIe siècle
Summary: This article presents a comparative study of four sermons against atheism written by seventeenth-century Protestant ministers on Psalm 14.1 : “The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God”. Though belonging to different generations, the authors, Amyraut, Gaches, Morus and Superville, deal with the refutation of atheism in the same way : the choice of Psalm 14.1 to preach against atheism is by no means original, the arguments proving the existence of God are repeated from one text to another and the sermons do not broach any of the century’s political and theological issues. It is noteworthy, however, that Amyraut’s sermon introduces two arguments which were to have an important posterity after Pascal and Voltaire : the idea that one should wager that God exists and the conception of God as a clockmaker.
Donner forme à la doctrine de l’élection : « La voie du salut » d’Antoine Garissoles (Montauban, 1637)
Summary: The collection of eight catechetical sermons of the preacher and professor Antoine Garissoles (1587-1651), published in 1637 under the title of « la voye du salut [the way of salvation] », presents the typical multiple aspects of the early modern sermon at the crossroads of the confessional doctrine in its evolution, the paduan neoaristotelianism as the dominating philosophy of its time and of the articulations of a piety with more and more traits of subjectivity. These interrelations, still scarcely explored for the french protestant sermon at the beginning of the seventeenth century, are assembled in the composition of the “voye” which choses an approach to one of the main subjects of calvinism, divine election, in the lines of zabarellism. Garissoles’s homiletic procedure along an eightfold series, the usual superstructure for catechetical sermons, offers itself quite naturally for this analytical process since, as the methodus resolutiva starts out with the end of a human activity in order to develop the means required to it, the scheme of the collection heeds off a key topic, elaborates it, for finally letting it culminate in an applicative conclusion completing the whole collection.
La conversion de saint Augustin : modèle paradigmatique ou exemple atypique ?
Summary: Augustine’s Confessions, and its central scene in the garden at Milan, have always been opened to many different interpretations. This article first deals with the structure of the work as a conversion narrative and then examines the dramatic structure of the famous garden scene, especially the way it answers and opposes other passages in the text. This will enable us to define, still in the light of the Confessions, the way this climactic episode marks changes and continuities in Augustine’s life.
Keywords: Antonius – Confessions – conversion – dramatization – garden at Milan – mirror effects – proselyte – Victorinus.
La conversion de Paul, Regards croisés
Summary: Historically speaking, the traditions concerning the conversion of Paul, falling from his horse on the road to Damascus, confront the exegete with three important problems : was there a horse, did it happen on the road to Damacus and was it really a conversion ? These three questions, considered with humor and critical distance, constitute the three sections of this article. The first part (« Was there a horse ? ») considers the history of the reception of the episode of the conversion of Paul, particularly in art and literature. The second one (« Did it happen on the road to Damascus ? ») is devoted to the story of the conversion of Paul proposed by the author of the book of Acts, which is very often the exclusive entrance to the discussion of this theme. The third section (« Was it really a conversion ? ») analyzes the account given by the apostle himself in two key passages of his authentic epistles.
Conversion et culture dans le monde grec du IVe siècle ap. J.-C.
Summary: Conversion – as a concept, as an event and as a deed – was seldom as imporant as it was during Forth Century AD, from the conversion of an emperor (Constantine) to the conversion of the whole Empire. In the Greek speaking and thinking East, religious conversion came across philosophical conversion model, which had been known and admitted for a long time. So, philosophical conver-sion could affect religious one, and, at the beginning of Fourth Century, christian conversion was not something new. But the novelty is the stress on the problem of relations between conversion and traditional culture, which was called then paideia (i.e. education and culture). The writers who were concerned with this problem dealt in turn with it in form of exclusion, competition and complemen-tarity.
Keywords: Late Antiquity, Greek literature, Christian literature, paganism, Julian (Roman emperor), Cons-tantine (Roman emperor), Libanius, Greek philosophy
The conversion of Alexander the Great to Judaism in the French Alexander Romances of the XIIth century : transforming and adapting a legend.
La conversion d’Alexandre le Grand au judaïsme : transpositions et avatars d’une légende dans les Romans d’Alexandre français du XIIe siècle
Summary: Traced back to Josephus’ Jewish Antiquities and to various rabbinical sources, the legendary encounter between Alexander the Great and the Jews in Jerusalem has given way to many adaptations throughout the Middle Ages and cand be found in particular in vernacular narratives of the XIIth century. Whereas Alexander’s conversion to judaism has often been taken for granted, my purpose here is to reconsider the story and to question such a view completely. Considering that portraying a conversion to judaism was hardly a genuine option for a medieval writer eager to promote the eminent qualities of his heroe, the inquiry will be twofold : first, are we truly confronted here with a conversion narrative ? And if so, is it really about judaism or are we dealing with some subtile forms of christianization ? Or could it be instead that most of the signs commonly associated with religious conversion are made part of a deceptive strategy of some sort or another ? A close literary analysis of the episode in the Alexander Romances by Alexandre de Paris and Thomas de Kent will show that the answer can not be straightforward. If the two versions are quite divergent in their treatment of the episode, both seem to be concerned with narrating an ambiguous meeting between a prince obsessed with personal ambition and a people holding a religious deposit that in the end remain hidden and undisclosed to him.
Keywords: Alexander, conversion, Judaism, Jerusalem, Josephus, French romance, rabbinical literature, midrash, Pseudo-Callisthene, anachronism
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